Linux has completely different naming conventions while mounting drives as compared to Windows. /dev/sda,/dev/sdb,/dev/sdc etc. are the conventions in Linux.
Each drive has its own partition table that describes the layout of partitions of the drive. MBR,GPT etc. are the different partition table standards used. The MBR partition scheme is quite old and is rarely used due to limitations like-
It does not allow the configuration of more than four main partitions.